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Load testing, Inspection of cranes, Lifting gears and appliances

Load testing, Inspection of cranes, Lifting gears and appliances

The "ALK-CS" company holds technical inspections and tests of hoisting mechanisms and attachments of any type. The standard examination certificate is issued after the inspection. The "ALK-CS" company is certified in accordance with rules of RMRS and the State Committee for Supervision of Industrial and Mining Practices (SCSIMP) to hold the complete technical inspection and hoisting test. Here you can find an example of a typical examination of a crane, as described below.

Technical examination of cranes

Technical examination establishes the following:
a) the load-lifting machine and its installation correspond to the Rules and represented documentation;
b) the load-lifting machine is in an operational condition ensured its safety;
c) the machine maintenance meets all the requirements of the Regulation.

These are the fixed terms and conditions of time, scope and the order of technical examination, as following.

Cranes should be subjected to the complete technical examination before the work start-up. Cranes subject to a registration in the authorities of SCSIMP. Technical examination should be carried out according to the operating manual for cranes. If there are no orders about an examination from authorities than cranes should be conducted according to current safety regulations 10-382-00.

During the normative working service period cranes must undergo a periodic technical inspection:

a) partial - not less than once per year;
b) full - not less than once per 3 years, except seldom-used cranes (cranes for servicing generator halls, electrical and pump stations, compressors, as well as other cranes used only when repairing the equipment).

Infrequently-accessed cranes must undergo a complete technical examination at least once per 5 years. The owner of the crane should subsume it as infrequently-accessed after the consultation with the authorities of the SCSIMP.

An extra technical inspection of a crane shall be carried out after:

a) mounting caused by the crane installation in a new place (except fast-erecting tower and boom cranes);
b) reconstruction of the crane;
c) repairing estimated crane metal structures with a replacement of elements or fittings by welding;
d) installation of a removable boom equipment or replacement of the boom;
e) thorough repair or replacement of load and boom winches;
f) replacement of the hook or the hook assembly (static tests only);
g) replacement of track or guy-rope crane cables type.

Reeving of cables and attachments must be checked on its safety after replacement the worn-out load, boom or other types of cables, as well as in all cases of interpassing of cables. The proof loading of cables must be also checked. Results must be recorded in the passport by a crane operator responsible for the upkeeping of cranes in a good condition.

Technical inspection of the crane shall be carried out by technical personnel to follow regulations of safety with the participation of technical personnel responsible for keeping cranes in a good condition.

A fully assembled crane repaired in a specialized repair shop and delivered to a site must undergo a full technical examination in the repair shop before sending it to the owner. The technical inspection certificate shall be attached to the crane passport. Prior to starting the work the crane owner shall conduct its partial technical examination and record results in the passport.

Technical inspection is intended to establish that:

a) the crane and its installation conform to present safety regulations 10-382-00, passport data and all the documentation submitted for the registration;
b) the crane is in a stable condition which ensures a safe operation.

Full technical examination of the crane shall be subjected to:

a) inspection;
b) static test;
c) the dynamic test.

In case of partial technical examination, static and dynamic testing of the crane are not held.

When the technical examination of the crane takes place, its mechanisms, brakes, hydraulic and electrical tools and safety equipment must be inspected and tested. One must hold an inspection of the crane overload limiter of a jib type and should take into account its load characteristics.

Moreover, after the technical examination of the crane, following parameters must be checked:

a) state of metal structures and welded (riveted) connections (should be no cracks, deformations, wall thinning due to a corrosion, slacking of riveted connections etc.), as well as the cabin, ladders, platforms, and fencing;
b) state of a hook and blocks. The industrial laboratory should test cranes transporting molten metal and molten slag; hoisting and tilting of a scoop, forged and stamped hooks and details of their suspension and components of lamellar hooks according to the instruction regulations and using nondestructive inspection methods. The surveyor’s report should be kept together with the passport of the crane.

The nondestructive testing means to check if there are cracks in the threaded part of the forged (stamped) hook, cracks in the threaded part of a fork and the joint axis of the lamellar hook with a fork or traverse. This review should be conducted at least once per every 12 months. The crane owner assigns how necessary and frequent the inspection of suspension parts should be;

c) the actual distance between the hook suspension and a back stop when the limit stop switch is activated and the hoist was stopped;
d) state of the insulation of wires and electric crane grounding to identify their resistance;
e) compliance between the mass of a counterweight and a ballast of the jib type crane and technical parameters specified in the passport;
f) state of the gantry rail and its compliance with current safety regulations 10-382-00, the design and the manual;
g) state of wires and their fastenings;
h) state of illumination and alarm systems.

A rejection rate of the gantry rail, wires and crane components must be specified in the instruction manual. If there are no relevant rules in the manual, the rejection of wires and crane components must be carried out in accordance with the recommendations specified in current safety regulations 10-382-00.

Static tests of the crane are conducted under the load, which is 25% above its capacity parameters according to the passport data.

Static tests of the overhead crane must be carried out as follows. The crane must be mounted on supports of the gantry rail, and its trolley - in the position corresponding to the maximum deflection of the bridge. The test load must be lifted by crane to a height of 100-200 mm and kept in this position for 10 minutes.

Static tests of the full gantry crane and the transshipment crane must be conducted in the same way as the inspection of the overhead crane; however, each console of the crane should be tested separately.

After 10 min the load must be down. Then an inspection of a permanent deformation of the bridge crane must be carried out. If there is a residual deformation, which is a result of the load test of the crane, than the crane must not be allowed to work before finding a specialized organization which should decide what is the cause of the deformation and if the work of the crane can be continued.

Static tests of the jib-type crane having one or more load characteristics are periodically or extraordinarily held in a position corresponding to a maximum load lifting capacity of the crane and / or the largest loading moment.

Tests of cranes with replaceable boom equipment can be carried out with equipment installed on it. Once the replaceable boom equipment installed on the crane, the test is held in a position corresponding to the maximum load lifting capacity of the crane.

Tests of jib-type cranes without a derricking mechanism (the boom is supported by stretching) are carried out in specified testing spots of boom extension. Subject to satisfactory results of the technical inspection, the subsequent work of the crane is permitted.

When static tests of jib-type cranes are carried out, the boom must be installed relatively to the leading substructure in the position corresponding to the lowest rated stability of the crane. The load must be lifted to a height of 100-200 mm.

If the lifted load does not fall on the ground within 10 min, and there no cracks, permanent deformations or other damages of metal structures and mechanisms, than the crane positively passed the test.

Dynamic tests of the crane are carried out by lifting a load, which is 10% heavier than its nominal capacity, and are intended to check the work of mechanisms and brakes.

Dynamic tests of cranes (except crane cable type) should be held multiple times (at least three times). It contains rising and lowering of cargo, as well as checking the actions of all other mechanisms after combined working actions as specified in the crane manual instruction.

Each mechanism of cranes equipped with two or more lifting mechanisms should be tested.

If the valve is used only for lifting and lowering of the cargo (gates lifting at a hydroelectric station), dynamic tests can be carried out without a movement of the crane or a trolley.

Static tests of overhead type cranes intended for hydro and thermal power plants maintenance can be carried out using special tools that create the load test without a cargo. In this case there is no need for dynamic tests.

To test cranes using special attachments the crane owner or specialized organizations should develop extra instructions.

Testing of the crane having several removable load handling devices shall be carried out using the load handling device, which was installed during the test.

To hold static or dynamic tests, the crane owner shall supply it with a set of test (control) goods and indicate their actual weight.

Results of the technical inspection of the crane should be written in its passport by an engineer or technical personnel, who were responsible for safety during the operation, specifically indicating a date of the next inspection. If the mounted crane is re-examined there must be a record in the passport, which confirms that the crane is mounted and installed in accordance with all the rules and operating instructions; it means that the crane passed the test.

After the periodic technical inspection there must be a record in the passport which confirms that the crane meets current safety regulations 10-382-00 and that it is in a good condition and has been successfully tested. The responsible technical personnel must

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